[Howto] Using include directive with ssh client configuration

A SSH client configuration makes accessing servers much easier and mo convenient. Until recently the configuration was done in one single file which could be problematic. But newer versions support includes to read configuration from multiple places.

SSH is the default way to access servers remotely – Linux and other UNIX systems, and since recently Windows as well.

One feature of the OpenSSH client is to configure often used parameters for SSH connections in a central config file, ~/.ssh/config. This comes in especially handy when multiple remote servers require different parameters: varying ports, other user names, different SSH keys, and so on. It also provides the possibility to define aliases for host names to avoid the necessity to type in the FQDN each time. Since such a configuration is directly read by the SSH client other tools wich are using the SSH client in the background – like Ansible – can benefit from the configuration as well.

A typical configuration of such a config file can look like this:

Host webapp
    HostName webapp.example.com
    User mycorporatelogin
    IdentityFile ~/.ssh/id_corporate
    IdentitiesOnly yes
Host github
    HostName github.com
    User mygithublogin
    IdentityFile ~/.ssh/id_ed25519
Host gitlab
    HostName gitlab.corporate.com
    User mycorporatelogin
    IdentityFile ~/.ssh/id_corporate
Host myserver
    HostName myserver.example.net
    Port 1234
    User myuser
    IdentityFile ~/.ssh/id_ed25519
Host aws-dev
    User ec2-user
    IdentityFile ~/.ssh/aws.pem
    IdentitiesOnly yes
    StrictHostKeyChecking no
Host azure-prod
    User azure-prod
    IdentityFile ~/.ssh/azure_ed25519

While this is very handy and helps a lot to maintain sanity even with very different and strange SSH configurations, a single huge file is hard to manage.

Cloud environments for example change constantly, so it makes sense to update/rebuild the configuration regularly. There are scripts out there, but they either just overwrite existing configuration, or do entirely work on an extra file which is referenced in each SSH client call with ssh -F .ssh/aws-config, or they require to mark sections in the .ssh/config like "### AZURE-SSH-CONFIG BEGIN ###". All attempts are either clumsy or error prone.

Another use case is where parts of the SSH configuration is managed by configuration management systems or by software packages for example by a company – again that requires changes to a single file and might alter or remove existing configuration for your others services and servers. After all, it is not uncommon to use your more-or-less private Github account for your company work so that you have mixed entries in your .ssh/config.

The underneath problem of managing more complex software configurations in single files is not unique to OpenSSH, but more or less common across many software stacks which are configured in text files. Recently it became more and more common to write software in a way that configuration is not read as a single file, but that all files from a certain directory are read in. Examples for this include:

  • sudo with the directory /etc/sudoers.d/
  • Apache with /etc/httpd/conf.d
  • Nginx with /etc/nginx/conf.d/
  • Systemd with /etc/systemd/system.conf.d/*
  • and so on…

Initially such an approach was not possible with the SSH client configuration in OpenSSH but there was a bug reported even including a patch quite some years ago. Luckily, almost three years ago OpenSSH version 7.3 was released and that version did come with the solution:

* ssh(1): Add an Include directive for ssh_config(5) files.


So now it is possible to add one or even multiple files and directories from where additional configuration can be loaded.


Include the specified configuration file(s). Multiple pathnames may be specified and each pathname may contain glob(7) wildcards and, for user configurations, shell-like `~’ references to user home directories. Files without absolute paths are assumed to be in ~/.ssh if included in a user configuration file or /etc/ssh if included from the system configuration file. Include directive may appear inside a Match or Host block to perform conditional inclusion.


The following .ssh/config file defines a sub-directory from where additional configuration can be read in:

$ cat ~/.ssh/config 
Include ~/.ssh/conf.d/*

Underneath ~/.ssh/conf.d there can be additional files, each containing one or more host definitions:

$ ls ~/.ssh/conf.d/
$ cat ~/.ssh/conf.d/aws.conf
Host aws-dev
    User ec2-user
    IdentityFile ~/.ssh/aws.pem
    IdentitiesOnly yes
    StrictHostKeyChecking no

This feature made managing SSH configuration for me much easier, and I only have few use cases and mainly require it to keep a simple overview over things. For more flexible (aka cloud based) setups this is crucial and can make things way easier.

Note that the additional config files should only contain host definitions! General SSH configuration should be inside ~/.ssh/config and should be before the include directive: any configuration provided after a “Host” keyword is interpreted as part of that exact host definition – until the next host block or until the next “Match” keyword.


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