Security compliance policies are common in enterprise environments and must be evaluated regularly. This is best done automatically – especially if you talk about hundreds of machines. The Security Content Automation Protocol provides the necessary standards around compliance testing – and OpenSCAP implements these in Open Source tools like Satellite.
Security can be ensured by various means. One of the processes in enterprise environments is to establish and enforce sets of default security policies to ensure that all systems at least follow the same set of IT baseline protection.
Part of such a process is to check the compliance of the affected systems regularly and document the outcome, positive or negative.
To avoid checking each system manually – repeating the same steps again and again – a defined method to describe policies and how to test these was developed: the Security Content Automation Protocol, SCAP. In simple words, SCAP is a protocol that describes how to write security compliance checklists. In real worlds, the concept behind SCAP is little bit more complicated, and it is worth reading through the home page to understand it.
OpenSCAP is a certified Open Source implementation of the Security Content Automation Protocol and enables users to run the mentioned checklists against Linux systems. It is developed in the broader ecosystem of the Fedora Project.
How to use OpenSCAP on Fedora, RHEL, etc.
Checking the security compliance of systems requires, first and foremost, a given set of compliance rules. In a real world environment the requirements of the given business would be evaluated and the necessary rules would be derived. In industries there are also pre-defined rules.
For a start it is sufficient to utilize one of the existing rule sets. Luckily, the OpenSCAP packages in Fedora, Red Hat Enterprise Linux and relate distributions are shipped with a predefined set of compliance checks.
So, first install the necessary software and compliance checks:
$ sudo dnf install scap-security-guide openscap-scanner
Check which profiles (checklists, more or less) are installed:
$ sudo oscap info /usr/share/xml/scap/ssg/content/ssg-fedora-ds.xml Document type: Source Data Stream Imported: 2015-10-20T09:01:27 Stream: scap_org.open-scap_datastream_from_xccdf_ssg-fedora-xccdf-1.2.xml Generated: (null) Version: 1.2 Checklists: Ref-Id: scap_org.open-scap_cref_ssg-fedora-xccdf-1.2.xml Profiles: xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_profile_common Referenced check files: ssg-fedora-oval.xml system: http://oval.mitre.org/XMLSchema/oval-definitions-5 Checks: Ref-Id: scap_org.open-scap_cref_ssg-fedora-oval.xml No dictionaries.
Run a test with the available profile:
$ sudo oscap xccdf eval \ --profile xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_profile_common \ --report /tmp/report.html \ /usr/share/xml/scap/ssg/content/ssg-fedora-ds.xml
In this example, the result will be printed to
/tmp/report.html and roughly looks like this:
If a report is clicked, more details are shown:
The details are particularly interesting if a test fails: they contain rich information about the test itself: the rationale behind the compliance policy itself to help auditors to understand the severity of the failing test, as well as detailed technical information about what was actually checked so that sysadmins can verify the test on their own. Also, linked identifiers provide further information like CVEs and other sources.
Usage in Satellite
Red Hat Satellite, Red Hat’s system management solution to deploy and manage RHEL instances has the ability to integrate OpenSCAP. The same is true for Foreman, one of the Open Source projects Satellite is based upon.
While the OpenSCAP packages need to be extra installed on a Satellite server, the procedure is fairly simple:
$ sudo yum install ruby193-rubygem-foreman_openscap puppet-foreman_scap_client -y ... $ sudo systemctl restart httpd &amp;amp;amp;&amp;amp;amp; sudo systemctl restart foreman-proxy
Afterwards, SCAP policies can be configured directly in the web interface, under Hosts -> Policies:
Beforehand you might want to check if proper SCAP content is provided already under Hosts -> SCAP Contents. If no content is shown, change the Organization to “Any Context” – there is currently a bug in Satellite making this step necessary.
When a policy has been created, hosts need to be assigned to the policy. Also, the given hosts should be supplied with the appropriate Puppet modules:
Due to the Puppet class the given host will be configured automatically, including the SCAP content and all necessary packages. There is no need to do any task on the host.
However, SCAP policies are checked usually once a week, and shortly after installation the admin probably would like to test the new capabilities. Thus there is also a manual way to start a SCAP run on the hosts. First, Puppet must be triggered to run at least once to download the new module, install the packages, etc. Afterwards, the configuration must be checked for the internal policy id, and the OpenSCAP client needs to be run with the id as argument.
$ sudo puppet agent -t ... $ sudo cat /etc/foreman_scap_client/config.yaml ... # policy (key is id as in Foreman) 2: :profile: 'xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_profile_stig-rhel7-server-upstream' ... $ sudo foreman_scap_client 2 DEBUG: running: oscap xccdf eval --profile xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_profile_stig-rhel7-server-upstream --results-arf /tmp/d20151211-2610-1h5ysfc/results.xml /var/lib/openscap/content/96c2a9d5278d5da905221bbb2dc61d0ace7ee3d97f021fccac994d26296d986d.xml DEBUG: running: /usr/bin/bzip2 /tmp/d20151211-2610-1h5ysfc/results.xml Uploading results to ...
If a Capsule is involved as well, the proper command to upload the report to the central server is
After these steps Satellite provides a good overview of all reports, even on the dashboard:
As you see: my demo system is certainly out of shape! =D
SCAP is a very convenient and widely approved way to evaluate security compliance policies on given systems. The SCAP implementation OpenSCAP is not only compatible with the SCAP standards and even a certified implementation, it also provides appealing reports which can be used to document the compliance of systems while at the same time incorporates enough information to help sysadmins do their job.
Last but not least, the integration with Satellite is quite nice: proper checklists are already provided for RHEL and others, Puppet makes sure everything just falls into place, and there is a neat integration into the management interface which offers RBAC for example to enable auditors to access the reports.
So: if you are dealing with security compliance policies in your IT environment, definitely check out OpenSCAP. And if you have RHEL instances, take your Satellite and start using it – right away!!